Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve lies on the floodplains of the Sapta Koshi River in the south-eastern Terai. The reserve was gazetted in 1976 to preserve habitat for the only remaining population of Wild buffalo or Arna. The 176 sq km reserve is Nepal's smallest wildlife reserve. The eastern and western embankments of the Sapta Koshi River, one of the main tributaries of the Ganges defines the area. In 1987, Koshi Tappu was declared a Ramsar site, a wetland of international significance. The reserve experiences three distinct seasons. Summer (February through May) is intensely hot with minimum precipitation. Shade temperatures can reach 40 c. The monsoon starts in late May/early June and lasts until September bringing heavy frequent rainfalls. The rainfall is greatest during July but high humidity and temperatures are experienced throughout the season. Winter (October through January) is characterized by clear skies and moderate temperature, but can still get quite cold.
The last surviving population of 159 Wild buffalo distinguished by their large horns in comparison to the domestic buffalo is found here. The reserve is also home to around 20 other animal species such as Hog Deer, Wild Boar, Spotted Deer, Blue Bull, and Rock Python. Around 441 species of birds (many seen nowhere else in Nepal) have been recorded, including 20 duck species, 2 Ibis species, the White Tailed Stonechat, the Striated Marsh Warbler, 30 shore birds, 114 water birds, and the endangered Swamp Partridge and Bengal Florican. The Koshi Barrage is an extremely important resting place for many migratory birds, containing 87 winter and trans-Himalayan migratory species. The Koshi River is home to 80 species of fish along with the endangered Gharial crocodile and Gangetic Dolphin.
Day 01: Drive or fly from Kathmandu to Biratnagar.
Day 02: After breakfast you set out for full day excursion on boat and four wheels drive to see waders, waterfowl, birds of prey, marsh crocodile, otters, wild water buffalo and Gangetic Dolphins including a visit to Pink Tower.
Day 03: After a breakfast you go for bird watch inside the reserve in the scrub forest, grasslands and wetland habitat with lunch packs to see swamp partridge, black necked stork, buntings, bulbuls etc. In the afternoon you can either continue bird watching or enjoy optional elephant ride to watch Arna, the wild water buffalo, blue bull, hog deer, fishing etc.
Day 04: Early morning you can either enjoy bird watching around the camp area or have leisure walk. After breakfast you depart for Kathmandu.